Flap surgery and bone grafts: Surgery of gum disease is necessary to perform in patients with moderate to advanced gum disease.
Gum disease is extremely common throughout the world but remains poorly understood. The health of the gums, in fact, is the most important determinant of the longevity of the teeth. A large percentage of teeth lost in old age can be attributed to the slow progression of gum disease.
Most people discover that they have gum disease when they enter a dentist's office seeking treatment for bleeding gums. If by that time the gum disease has progressed enough, then they will also have to learn about gum surgery very quickly.
Gum surgery is done to gain access to the infected root surface of the tooth, remove pockets around the gum tissue that harbour harmful bacteria, and place bone grafts in an attempt to regenerate the bone.
The type of gum surgery performed for these purposes is called flap surgery.
Where are bone and soft tissue grafts used?
If during the preoperative clinical examination or during the evaluation of the radiographs, there appear areas where there is an opportunity for bone regeneration to take place, then bone grafts will be used during the surgical procedure.
Bone grafts can be of different types according to the need of the surgeon. They can be collected from a different part of the jaw bone, can be formulated clinically in a laboratory or can be derived from different animal sources. The latter is the most commonly used option, since it does not involve a second surgical site and also has a better success rate than bone grafts formulated in a completely artificial way.
The soft tissue grafts used in areas where the disease has caused gum gums recede. If this happens in the front teeth, it can end up causing an aesthetic problem that is difficult to care for.